TECIP Teacher Educators in Higher Education As Catalysts for Inclusive Practices in Technical and Vocational Education
Teacher Educators in Higher Education as
Catalysts for Inclusive Practices in Technical and Vocational Education (TECIP) was a capacity building project between JAMK University of Applied Sciences,
Finland, Federal Technical Vocational Education and Training Institute (FTI),
Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia, and University of Jyväskylä,
Finland. The project was based on the long-term collaboration between the
participating HEIs. In Ethiopia, there is favorable policy
environment for developing post-secondary TVET towards inclusion. Still,
concrete actions are needed. Teachers have a key role in making reforms come
true, and therefore the development of TVET teacher education is the prime
objective for ensuring people with special educational needs and disabilities
the access to and participation in TVET education.
The mission of the TECIP-project was to equip
the TVET teacher training providers on national, regional and local levels with
necessary skills and knowledge on inclusive practices to support national
development efforts towards inclusive TVET education in Ethiopia.
As an outcome of the project, FTI developed its
educational structures in terms of inclusion in TVET and curricula on
inclusive education and related modules for pre- and in-service TVET teacher programs.
As the modules developed in the project are part of the curricula, the results
sustain and reach new generation of teachers. Additionally, a new in-service
training model was developed for FTI and piloted for the use in future. The
project scope involved all regions in Ethiopia via in-service training model.
Key Results to be Achieved:
- One curriculum and two training modules prepared which are integrated in the SEN and Inclusive Education course - Result obtained in the project
- Five regional events/workshops conducted and knowledge on inclusion delivered for 200 persons at Federal, Regional and local levels on inclusive education in TVET - Result obtained in the project
- 15 teacher trainers of FTI trained on inclusion and professional development plans prepared for them, including an awareness raising event for the whole FTI staff (N=100) - Result obtained in the project
- In-service training model developed for FTI, which consists of the Training of Trainers program for 100 TVET teachers and of the practice in delivering knowledge on inclusive practices for 1000 TVET teachers in regions. - Result obtained in the project
Project Manager, Principal Lecturer Maija Mäkinen,
tel. +358 400 505137, firstname.lastname[a]jamk.fi
Programme’s Impact statement: Strengthened capacity of HEIs in the global south to contribute to well-functioning, efficient and equitable societies.
The TECIP-project targeted at having impact on TVET teacher education on the national, regional and local levels by increasing the competence and by developing skills and knowledge on Inclusive Practices in order to support the national efforts towards Inclusive Education.
The baseline study showed that there were no official statistics on students with SEND in TVET (based on the study by Abebe Yehualawork Malle in 2015 the estimated share of the SEND students in TVET was 0.07-0.55 %).
Teacher education is the key actor in impacting the situation of students of SEND in Ethiopia. Federal TVET Institute (FTI) is the national level, leading TVET teacher education actor. It has 11 satellite campuses around the country. Future teachers are change makers. They are able to increase participation of students with disabilities in TVET colleges. That is why the TECIP-project concentrated on developing skills and knowledge of teacher trainees and teacher trainers at FTI on inclusive education and its requirements: awareness of all staff members at FTI, specialized 15 teacher trainers (called SEN coordinators), training model and schedule, training material and understanding the difference between inclusive pedagogy and traditional training mode.
Through the TECIP-project FTI adopted a training model on inclusive education with trained staff and learning material. It has sustainable inclusive friendly learning environment for its future use.
The TECIP-project worked together with the Ethiopian TVET administration: involvement of the Federal TVET Agency, trainings of TVET administrators and heads and the contacts with the TVET minister at the Ministry of Education all contribute to the situation of students with disabilities in the TVET education and that way enhance possibilities for them in employment and in society.
Programme’s Outcome statement: Improved research and teaching capacity as well as access to good quality services in HEIs in the countries participating in the programme
At the beginning of the TECIP-project there were no curricula or training modules on inclusive practices with appropriate materials for future TVET teachers in Federal TVET Institute (FTI) or no teachers specialized on inclusive education/special needs education.
The University of Addis Ababa had a Special Needs Education department and teacher training on inclusive education, but they did not have expertise on technical and vocational education and training (TVET-sector) and they did not collaborate with TVET teacher education in any ways. Teachers at TVET Colleges had minimal knowledge and skills on special needs and the collaboration with different stakeholders and parties was weak.
On the other hand, FTI was willing to extend its pedagogy to inclusive education, the administrators were positive towards inclusive education and they recognized the needs to develop curricula and learning material and to increase capacity of its staff.
The national TVET administration (Federal TVET Agency) was willing to join forces and develop inclusive education in TVET colleges by increasing awareness and training TVET administrators in the regional and local levels around the country.
Also the renewed national educational guidelines, Roadmap to Education 2018-2030 set requirements to teacher training institutes on inclusive education (Draft: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ethiopia_education_development_roadmap_2018-2030.pdf).
This was in line with the TECIP-project`s goals.
As indicators for progress on the impact we can state that the TECIP-project has been able to equip FTI with new approaches and methods to develop and implement inclusive education in TVET teacher education to address the needs of SEND students. Similarly, it has increased capacity to act in administrative and educational networks to develop inclusive education in TVET.
The overall awareness on inclusive education at FTI is good, including administration.
FTI has a support structure for students with SEND consisting of 15 trained staff members in different departments, learning material and module on inclusive education accepted by the Senate of FTI, a training model on inclusive education to be used for FTI graduates and in in-service training for TVET sector (managers, administrators, deans, Assessment Centers and TVET teachers) consisting of training schedule, structure and learning material. Before all 15 trained staff members have adopted skills and knowledge on inclusive pedagogy, in other words deepened understanding on inclusive education: it is not only about access to education but it is about increasing participation in education.
The TECIP-project succeeded in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and TVET minister and with Federal TVET Agency which all are the key actors in developing inclusive practices in Ethiopia.
Outputs: New teaching methods, curricula, study programmes, modules and quality assurance mechanisms.
New collaboration initiatives, (joint) publications or dissemination events (number/%)
Improved quality of higher education and research environment:
According to the baseline, there were no teachers specialized on inclusive education and special needs in TVET teacher education and there were no curricula or training modules on inclusive practices with appropriate materials for future TVET teachers in Federal TVET Institute (FTI) or no training model which roots the learnt matters to the regions and local colleges.
In the TECIP-project the Federal TVET Institute (FTI) plays a major role in enhancing inclusive approach into TVET colleges. FTI main campus as well as its 11 satellite campuses around the country are responsible for pre-service TVET teacher education and in-service training for TVET managers and TVET College heads and TVET teachers. That is why it was important to start with the awareness raising of the whole staff in FTI. After that 15 teacher trainers representing different fields and departments were selected for a specialization training on inclusive education.
The focus of the training was not only in theoretical matters but before all giving opportunity to experience inclusive pedagogy and participating methodology. Ethiopian pedagogical culture is traditional, teacher-centered. Offering the possibility for another kind of pedagogy was eyes-opening (pls watch the video clip). We succeeded to reach 3 female teacher trainers of 15. The project also used Ethiopian trainers and people with disabilities from Disability organizations and NGOs.
However, in addition to awareness and specialization training the 15 coordinators were prepared with Personal Learning Plans in order to encourage for further studies in inclusive education and pedagogy. Unfortunately the Addis Ababa University accepts PhD candidates mainly from its own satellite campuses. Two coordinators of FTI were selected to the University of Jyväskylä for the preparation of PhD research plans in 2019 and they both submitted their research plans on inclusive education.
The role of the 15 coordinators in the project was to pilot the training model which they implemented in 2019, October. They conducted autonomously (without input of JAMK) a training for all FTI graduates that year (N=367). They benefitted the inclusive pedagogy (participatory methodology) they had adopted and also the learning material produced in the project. The training was monitored by the project manager/JAMK and it was one of the highlights of the whole project. The 15 coordinators have been nominated to work as teachers on inclusive education at FTI and conduct the training annually to the graduates and also in in-service trainings in the future.
Strengthened role and relevance of HE in development of society:
Output indicator 4.1 New forms of cooperation enhancing participation in local, regional or national level
Output indicator 4.2 New modalities of cooperation enhancing the role of HE at international level
Federal TVET Institute is a federal-level higher education institute being responsible with its 11 satellite campuses for TVET teacher education and this way impacting the whole society. The TECIP-project progressed hand in hand with the federal and regional TVET administration. That is why the TECIP-project organized together with the Federal TVET Agency (FTA) five regional workshops around the country and delivered knowledge on inclusion for 150 TVET administrators, deans and college heads at the beginning of the project (end of 2017). The administrators were required to prepare Action Plans for their region, bureau or TVET college. Similarly, they were required to select teachers from their TVET colleges for the ToT-training with a gender sensitive approach and with balanced approach to female and male dominated vocations. 100 TVET teachers were selected for the training for two rounds, having 6 months time between for the preparation of Action Plans the participants had to write.
The Training of Trainers programme was carried out on inclusion. The first round consisted of Inclusive pedagogy, teachers from JAMK as trainers and where the focus was to give experiences on participating methodology. The second round was conducted for the same participants. The program consisted of presentations of the Action Plans prepared by the participants but in order to ensure the Ethiopian context, Ethiopian disability experts worked as trainers (persons with disabilities). The main idea was that the participants have to share their knowledge to their colleagues and this way promote inclusive practices all around the country.
According to the project plan this model was supposed to form an in-service training model for FTI´s further use. However, the Project Board amended the plan and a change request was sent to EDU.fi. After the ToT-trainings several monitoring rounds were conducted to TVET colleges by FTA and Addis Ababa University. This way the progress on inclusive practices was monitored in an effective way.